1938 Jerusalem is an old film of the route from the Jaffa Gate to the Western Wall in the Old City of Jerusalem. What could you see on this route in those days?
The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman rule of the country lasted without interruption for three centuries, until its conquest by Muhammad Ali’s Egypt in 1832. Eight years later, the United Kingdom intervened and returned control of the Levant to the Ottomans. Many demographic changes happened during the 19th century such as the regional migrations of Druze, Circassians and Bedouin tribes, the emergence of Zionism, and the revival of the Hebrew language.
The Ottoman Gendarmerie
The Ottoman Gendarmerie (Jandarma), also known as zaptı, was a security and public order organization (a precursor to law enforcement) in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire. The first official gendarmerie organization was founded in 1869.
“Jaffa Gate” is currently used for both the historical Ottoman gate from 1538, and for the wide gap in the city wall adjacent to it to the south. The old gate has the shape of a medieval gate tower with an L-shaped entryway, which was secured at both ends (north and east) with heavy doors. The breach in the wall was created in 1898 by the Ottoman authorities in order to allow German emperor Wilhelm II to enter the city triumphantly. The breach and the ramp leading up to it are now allowing cars to access the Old City from the west.
One of the four quarters of the ancient (upper right corner), walled Old City of Jerusalem, the largest and most populous.
Dome of the Rock
An Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem, initially completed in 691–92 CE at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik on the site of the Second Jewish Temple, destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem in 70 CE. The original dome collapsed in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23. The Dome of the Rock is in its core one of the oldest extant works of Islamic architecture.
Washing of the Hands – “Netilat Yadayim”
Netilat Yadayim – “washing of the hands” is the Jewish practice of washing one’s hands before eating bread. Bread is the most fundamental human food, which is one reason for there being a special commandment for doing it.
The Western Wall, Wailing Wall, Kotel Hamaaravi, Buraq Wall is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem. The wall was originally erected as part of the expansion of the Second Jewish Temple begun by Herod the Great, which resulted in the encasement of the natural, steep hill known to Jews and Christians as the Temple Mount, in a large rectangular structure topped by a huge flat platform, thus creating more space for the Temple.
Breslav (Hasidic group)
Bratslav is a branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772–1810), a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism. Its adherents strive to develop an intense, joyous relationship with God and receive guidance toward this goal from the teachings of Rebbe Nachman.