Tuesday , 22 October 2019
Home » History » IsraelPalestine For Critical Thinkers: #9 Independence or Nakba *

IsraelPalestine For Critical Thinkers: #9 Independence or Nakba *

David Ben-Gurion declaring independence beneath a large portrait of Theodor Herzl, founder of modern Zionism - Photo: Public Domain

Independence or Nakba? – Which narrative is correct. Read this post and tell us what you think the IsraelPalestine conflict.

IsraelPalestine For Critical Thinkers: #9 Independence or Nakba

The United Nations (UN)

The United Nations, the successor of the ineffective League of Nations, was formed on 25 June 1945 in San Francisco by 50 governments representing the winners of WWII. On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly approved a resolution to partition Palestine, approving the creation of the state of Israel. Third World nations organized together with Arab and Muslim countries passed many resolutions against Israel and Zionism.

The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue
The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue

(Photo: Public Domain)

Zionism – Independence

Zionism is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel. Modern Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in Central and Eastern Europe as a national revival movement in adherence to religious Judaism and in reaction to newer waves of antisemitism at the same time as others a national liberation movements. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire.

Theodor Herzl is considered the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 book Der Judenstaat, he envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century.
Theodor Herzl is considered the founder of the Modern Zionist movement. In his 1896 book Der Judenstaat, he envisioned the founding of a future independent Jewish state during the 20th century.

(Photo: Public Domain)

The term “Zionism” is derived from the word Zion referring to Jerusalem. Lobbying by Chaim Weizmann culminated in the British government’s Balfour Declaration of 1917.

It endorsed the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine, as follows:

His Majesty’s government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country.

United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine

The resolution recommended the creation of independent Arab and Jewish States and a Special International Regime for the city of Jerusalem. The Plan was accepted by the Jewish Agency for Palestine. Arab leaders and governments rejected it and indicated an unwillingness to accept any form of territorial division.

The 1947–1948 civil war in Mandatory Palestine

The 1947–1948 civil war in Mandatory Palestine was the first phase of the 1948 Israeli War of Independence. It broke out after the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution on 29 November 1947 recommending the adoption of the Partition Plan for Palestine.

Arab volunteers fighting in Palestine in 1947
Arab volunteers fighting in Palestine in 1947

(Photo: Public Domain)

The 1948-1949 Arab–Israeli War

The 1948-1949 Arab–Israeli War (Israeli War of Independence) was fought between the newly declared State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states over the control of former British Palestine, forming the second and final stage of the 1947–49 Palestine war.

Arab offensive, 15 May – 10 June 1948
Arab offensive, 15 May – 10 June 1948

(Photo: Public Domain)

The Green Line

The Green Line is the demarcation line set out in the 1949 Armistice Agreements between the armies of Israel and those of its “neighbors” (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria) after the 1948 Israeli War of Independence. It served as the de facto borders of the State of Israel from 1949 until the Six-Day War in 1967. The name comes from the green ink used to draw the line on the map while the armistice talks were going on.

1948–1967 (actual): The Jordanian-annexed West Bank (light green) and Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip (dark green), after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, showing 1949 armistice lines. Map: ComServant
1948–1967 (actual): The Jordanian-annexed West Bank (light green) and Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip (dark green), after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, showing 1949 armistice lines.
Map: ComServant

Nakba

“Nakba” is the Arabic word for “catastrophe” or “disaster” and the occasion remembers around 700,000 Palestinian Arabs who left the area that became Israel as a result of the Israeli War of Independence (1947-1949) to seek refuge in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Refugee status was also passed on to their descendants, who were also largely denied citizenship in Arab states, except in Jordan. Arab nations refused to absorb Palestinian refugees, instead keeping them in refugee camps while insisting that they be allowed to return.

Arab refugees - Independence or Nakba
Arab refugees

(Photo: Public Domain)

In the three years following the war, about 800,000–1,000,000 Jews immigrated to Israel, with many of them having been expelled from their previous countries of residence in the Middle East.

The Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries was the departure, flight, migration and expulsion of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from Arab and Muslim countries, from 1948 onwards. The reasons for the exodus include state and non-state sanctioned persecution, antisemitism, political instability, poverty, disenfranchisement and expulsion.

Jewish refugees
Jewish refugees

(Photo: Public Domain)

Jewish Timeline – A Brief History of the Jewish People on One Page

Approved and recommended by the Israeli Ministry of Education.

6,000 Years of Jewish history & legacy at a glance on a one-page infographic.
The poster-chart combines different fields on a single timeline such as demography, literature, Jewish and World events, traditions, historical figures and more. Every entry on the timeline is a hot-spot that pops a balloon with an image, further reading and useful links (Wikipedia & more). In addition, you may freely download and print a high resolution version of the Odyeda Jewish Timeline in PDF format in white or parchment backgrounds.

Read more: Aggression & Self-Preservation

About Israel and You

Cameling in the holy land since forever